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Daniel Chapter 4 was the last we hear of Nebuchadnezzar in the Bible. History tells us that he was murdered soon after the events of Chapter 4. A couple of his sons became king and were murdered themselves within a few years. Eventually Nebuchadnezzar's daughter became queen (Nitochris) and her husband (Nabonius) who had no interest in being king was letting his son Belshazzar be king by proxy. For 4 years Belshazzar did open battle with the King of Persia who was King Cyrus. Cyrus was half Mede and half Persian. Cyrus conquered many neighboring towns around Babylon which was located on the Euphrates river, Because of the way Babylon was constructed on the banks of the Euphrates, it was considered safe and undefeatable. The young king Belshazzar was eventually driven to retreat within the confined city walls of Babylon.
The Medeo-Persian army defeating Babylon was prophecy of Isaiah 44 and 45.
Cyrus's plan to defeat Babylon was to conquer the neighboring towns and cities around Babylon then to dig trenches to divert the water away from the Euphrates river in an effort to decrease the level of the water so his soldiers could slip in under the walls of Babylon at the most opportune time. During a prearranged time of his choosing for this attack, which was during a banquet that was orchestrated by Belshazzar which amounted to a drunken orgy that included licentious and idolatry. Attending Belshazzar's party was 1,000 of his nobles.
During this party of Belshazzar's, Belshazzar sent his men to the Babylonian Museum to retrieve the gold and silver vessels that his Grandfather took from the temple in Jerusalem that were dedicated for the worship of Father Yahweh. Belshazzar then drank to the pagan gods of gold, silver, and other false dieties. The act of this young inexperienced king with his actions, brought the wrath of God down on both him and Babylon.
The Father produced a hand that wrote on the wall during his banquet that caused Belshazzar's loins to be loosed v.6, The Hand wrote strange words which were not interpretable by any of Babylons scientists. In came the Queen Mother (Nitocris) who informed Belshazzar that there is one man in the kingdom that can interpret the meaning of the writing of the wall named Daniel. Daniel, at that time was around 87 years old who immediately knew that Belshazzar was drinking wine out of the silver and gold vessels that was taken from the temple of Jerusalem with his whores and knew exactly what the writing on the wall said.
Belshazzar offered Daniel a position in his Kingdom to be one of the 3 Governors of Babylon. Daniel declined the offer because he knew the Persians were on the way and knew the Persians were, according to the book of Isaiah, would attack Babylon and free the Judahites and return them to Judea. Daniel told Belshazzar that he didn't want his treasures and would interpret the writing for him anyway, but first he told Belshazzar that his Grandfather Nebuchadnezzar was a real king and had great leadership abilities, who turned his face from the Father that gave him his kingdom and after a time of seven years as living as a beast, and eventually repented.
The hand that told Belshazzar his time was up caused him to have a bout of incontinence as his loins were loosed, V.6
Daniel also told Belshazzar that he had no leadership abilities that he wasn't worthy to walk in his Grandfathers shadow. Exact wording it in today's vernacular Daniel's statement to Beshazzaar would have probably started with something like “Listen you little punk...” anyway, as he continued to interpret the meaning of the writing on the wall, which was:
MENE- God hath numbered thy kingdom, and finished it.
TEKEL- Thou are weighted in the balances, and art found wanting.
PERES- Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians.
Then Belshazzar commanded that Daniel will have a gold necklace and will become the third Governor of Babylon anyway. The Governorship of Daniel's of course only lasted a couple of hours, and was not worthy to put on a resume'. Belshazzar was killed that night and this set the stage for the for the release of the two tribes of Israel to return to Judea.